Dietary Fats, Cerebrovasculature Integrity And Alzheimer’s Disease Risk, Progress in Lipid Research, November 2009
An emerging body of evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that dietary fats influence Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, but less clear is the mechanisms by which this occurs. Alzheimer’s is an inflammatory disorder, many consider in response to fibrillar formation and extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta (Abeta). Alternatively, amyloidosis could notionally be a secondary phenomenon to inflammation, because some studies suggest that cerebrovascular disturbances precede amyloid plaque formation. Hence, dietary fats may influence AD risk by either modulating Abeta metabolism, or via Abeta independent pathways. This review explores these two possibilities taking into consideration; (i) the substantial affinity of Abeta for lipids and its ordinary metabolism as an apolipoprotein; (ii) evidence that Abeta has potent vasoactive properties and (iii) studies which show that dietary fats modulate Abeta biogenesis and secretion. We discuss accumulating evidence that dietary fats significantly influence cerebrovascular integrity and as a consequence altered Abeta kinetics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Specifically, chronic ingestion of saturated fats or cholesterol appears to results in BBB dysfunction and exaggerated delivery from blood-to-brain of peripheral Abeta associated with lipoproteins of intestinal and hepatic origin. Interestingly, the pattern of saturated fat/cholesterol induced cerebrovascular disturbances in otherwise normal wild-type animal strains is analogous to established models of AD genetically modified to overproduce Abeta, consistent with a causal association. Saturated fats and cholesterol may exacerbate Abeta induced cerebrovascular disturbances by enhancing exposure of vessels of circulating Abeta. However, presently there is no evidence to support this contention. Rather, SFA and cholesterol appear to more broadly compromise BBB integrity with the consequence of plasma protein leakage into brain, including lipoprotein associated Abeta. The latter findings are consistent with the concept that AD is a dietary-fat induced phenotype of vascular dementia, reflecting the extraordinary entrapment of peripherally derived lipoproteins endogenously enriched in Abeta. Rather than being the initiating trigger for inflammation in AD, accumulation of extracellular lipoprotein-Abeta may be a secondary amplifier of dietary induced inflammation, or possibly, simply be consequential. Clearly, delineating the mechanisms by which dietary fats increase AD risk may be informative in developing new strategies for prevention and treatment of AD.
Pharmacological Modulation Of Dietary Lipid-induced Cerebral Capillary Dysfunction: Considerations For Reducing Risk For Alzheimer’s Disease, Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, December 2015
An increasing body of evidence suggests that cerebrovascular dysfunction and microvessel disease precede the evolution of hallmark pathological features that characterise Alzheimer’s disease (AD), consistent with a causal association for onset or progression. Recent studies, principally in genetically unmanipulated animal models, suggest that chronic ingestion of diets enriched in saturated fats and cholesterol may compromise blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity resulting in inappropriate blood-to-brain extravasation of plasma proteins, including lipid macromolecules that may be enriched in amyloid-β (Aβ). Brain parenchymal retention of blood proteins and lipoprotein bound Aβ is associated with heightened neurovascular inflammation, altered redox homeostasis and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Therefore, it is a reasonable proposition that lipid-lowering agents may positively modulate BBB integrity and by extension attenuate risk or progression of AD.
Right. So, Alzheimer’s Disease is likely a result of a Western high-fat, high-saturated-fat, high cholesterol diet. That is, an animal food diet. The blood vessels in the brain, including the blood-brain barrier, are compromised. The fat increases inflammation and the damaged blood vessels allow more amyloid-beta plaque to enter and build up. It’s the biologically plausible mechanism that won’t go away.
You can do two things:
1. Prescribe lipid-lowering drugs.
2. Stop eating animals. Especially dairy food.
Studies found in Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease with Diet, Michael Greger MD 1 February 2022