Calcium, Vitamin D, Milk Consumption, And Hip Fractures: A Prospective Study Among Postmenopausal Women, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003
- “Total calcium intake was not associated with hip fracture risk.”
- “Milk consumption was not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture.”
And a more recent one that found no significant association between most dairy foods and hip fracture:
Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study, Archives of Osteoporosis, February 2013
Writing in JAMA Pediatrics last year (Three Daily Servings of Reduced-Fat Milk, An Evidence-Based Recommendation?), Harvard professor and pediatrician David Ludwig said:
“Humans have no nutritional requirement for animal milk, an evolutionary recent addition to diet. Anatomically modern humans presumably achieved adequate nutrition for millennia before domestication of dairy animals, and many populations throughout the world today consume little or no milk for biological reasons (lactase deficiency), lack of availability, or cultural preferences.
Adequate dietary calcium for bone health, often cited as the primary rationale for high intake of milk, can be obtained from many other sources. Indeed, the recommended levels of calcium intake in the United States, based predominately on balance studies of 3 weeks or less, likely overestimate actual requirements and greatly exceed recommended intakes in the United Kingdom.
Throughout the world, bone fracture rates tend to be lower in countries that do not consume milk compared with those that do. Moreover, milk consumption does not protect against fracture in adults, according to a recent meta-analysis.”
In Milk Does A Body Good? Maybe Not Always, Harvard Doc Argues, Ludwig says people who eat a diet of leafy greens, legumes, nuts and seeds, get little to no added nutritional benefit from consuming dairy food, and:
“The point is, we can get plenty of calcium from a whole range of foods. … On a gram for gram basis, cooked kale has more calcium than milk.”